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Sejarah Lahirnya GAM

GAM (Gerakan Aceh Merdeka), mau tak mau, harus bicara kelahiran negara Republik Indonesia. Sebab, dari situlah kisah gerakan menuntut kemerdekaan dimulai. Lima hari setelah RI diproklamasikan, Aceh menyatakan dukungan sepenuhnya terhadap kekuasaan pemerintahan yang berpusat di Jakarta. Dibawah Residen Aceh, yang juga tokoh terkemuka, Tengku Nyak Arief, Aceh menyatakan janji kesetiaan, mendukung kemerdekaan RI dan Aceh sebagai bagian tak terpisahkan.Pada 23 Agustus 1945, sedikitnya 56 tokoh Aceh berkumpul dan mengucapkan sumpah. ”Demi Allah, saya akan setia untuk membela kemerdekaan Republik Indonesia sampai titik darah saya yang terakhir.” Kecuali Mohammad Daud Beureueh, seluruh tokoh dan ulama Aceh mengucapkan janji itu. Pukul 10.00, Husein Naim dan M Amin Bugeh mengibarkan bendera di gedung Shu Chokan (kini, kantor gubernur). Teuku Nyak Arief Gubernur di bumi Serambi Mekkah.

Tetapi, ternyata tak semua tokoh Aceh mengucapkan janji setia. Mereka para hulubalang, prajurit di medan laga. Prajurit yang berjuang melawan Belanda dan Jepang. Mereka yakin, tanpa RI, mereka bisa mengelola sendiri negara Aceh. Inilah kisah awal sebuah gerakan kemerdekaan. Motornya adalah Daud Cumbok. Markasnya di daerah Bireuen.

Tokoh-tokoh ulama menentang Daud Cumbok. Melalui tokoh dan pejuang Aceh, M. Nur El Ibrahimy, Daud Cumbok digempur dan kalah. Dalam sejarah, perang ini dinamakan perang saudara atau Perang Cumbok yang menewaskan tak kurang 1.500 orang selama setahun hingga 1946. Tahun 1948, ketika pemerintahan RI berpindah ke Yogyakarta dan Syafrudin Prawiranegara ditunjuk sebagai Presiden Pemerintahan Darurat RI (PDRI), Aceh minta menjadi propinsi sendiri. Saat itulah, M. Daud Beureueh ditunjuk sebagai Gubernur Militer Aceh. Oleh karena kondisi negara terus labil dan Belanda merajalela kembali, muncul gagasan melepaskan diri dari RI. Ide datang dari dr. Mansur. Wilayahnya tak cuma Aceh.

Tetapi, meliputi Aceh, Nias, Tapanuli, Sumatera Selatan, Lampung, Bengkalis, Indragiri, Riau, Bengkulu, Jambi, dan Minangkabau. Daud Beureueh menentang ide ini. Dia pun berkampanye kepada seluruh rakyat, bahwa Aceh adalah bagian RI. Sebagai tanda bukti, Beureueh memobilisasi dana rakyat. Setahun kemudian, 1949, Beureueh berhasil mengumpulkan dana rakyat 500.000 dolar AS. Uang itu disumbangkan utuh buat bangsa Indonesia.

Uang itu diberikan ABRI 250 ribu dolar, 50 ribu dolar untuk perkantoran pemerintahan negara RI, 100 ribu dolar untuk pengembalian pemerintahan RI dari Yogyakarta ke Jakarta, dan 100 ribu dolar diberikan kepada pemerintah pusat melalui AA Maramis. Aceh juga menyumbang emas lantakan untuk membeli obligasi pemerintah, membiayai berdirinya perwakilan RI di India, Singapura dan pembelian dua pesawat terbang untuk keperluan para pemimpin RI. Saat itu Soekarno menyebut Aceh adalah modal utama kemerdekaan RI.

Setahun berlangsung, kekecewaan tumbuh. Propinsi Aceh dilebur ke Propinsi Sumatera Utara. Rakyat Aceh marah. Apalagi, janji Soekarno pada 16 Juni 1948 bahwa Aceh akan diberi hak mengurus rumah tangganya sendiri sesuai syariat Islam tak juga dipenuhi. Intinya, Daud Beureueh ingin pengakuan hak menjalankan agama di Aceh. Bukan dilarang. Beureueh tak minta merdeka, cuma minta kebebasan menjalankan agamanya sesuai syariat Islam. Daud Beureueh pun menggulirkan ide pembentukan Negara Islam Indonesia pada April 1953. Ide ini di Jawa Barat telah diusung Kartosuwiryo pada 1949 melalui Darul Islam.

Lima bulan kemudian, Beureueh menyatakan bergabung dan mengakui NII Kartosuwiryo. Dari sinilah lantas Beureueh melakukan gerilya. Rakyat Aceh, yang notabene Islam, mendukung sepenuhnya ide NII itu. Tentara NII pun dibentuk, bernama Tentara Islam Indonesia (TII). Lantas, terkenallah pemberontakan DI/TII di sejumlah daerah. Beureueh lari ke hutan. Cuma, ada tragedi di sini. Pada 1955 telah terjadi pembunuhan masal oleh TNI. Sekitar 64 warga Aceh tak berdosa dibariskan di lapangan lalu ditembaki. Aksi ini mengecewakan tokoh Aceh yang pro-Soekarno. Melalui berbagai gejolak dan perundingan, pada 1959, Aceh memperoleh status propinsi daerah istimewa.

Beureueh merasa dikhianati Soekarno. Bung Karno tidak mengindahkan struktur kepemimpinan adat dan tak menghargai peranan ulama dalam kehidupan bernegara. Padahal, rakyat Aceh itu sangat besar kepercayaannya kepada ulama. Gerilya dilakukan. Tetapi, Bung Karno mengerahkan tentaranya ke Aceh. Tahun 1962, Beureueh dibujuk menantunya El Ibrahimy agar menuruti Menhankam AH Nasution untuk menyerah. Beureueh menurut karena ada janji akan dibuatkan UU Syariat Islam bagi rakyat Aceh (baru terwujud tahun 2001).

GAM lahir di era Soeharto. Saat itu, sedang terjadi industrialisasi di Aceh. Soeharto benar-benar mencampakkan adat dan segala penghormatan rakyat Aceh. Efek judi melahirkan prostitusi, mabuk-mabukan, bar, dan segala macam yang bertentangan dengan Islam dan adat rakyat Aceh. Kekayaan alam Aceh dikuras melalui pembangunan industri yang dikuasai orang asing melalui restu pusat. Sementara rakyat Aceh tetap miskin.

Pendidikan rendah, kondisi ekonomi sangat memprihatinkan. Melihat hal ini, Daud Beureueh dan tokoh tua Aceh yang sudah tenang kemudian bergerilya kembali untuk mengembalikan kehormatan rakyat, adat Aceh dan agama Islam. Pertemuan digagas tahun 1970-an. Mereka sepakat meneruskan pembentukan Republik Islam Aceh, yakni sebuah negeri yang mulia dan penuh ampunan Tuhan. Kini mereka sadar, tujuan itu tak bisa tercapai tanpa senjata. Lalu diutuslah Zainal Abidin menemui Hasan Tiro yang sedang belajar di Amerika.

Pertemuan terjadi tahun 1972 dan disepakati Tiro akan mengirim senjata ke Aceh. Zainal tak lain adalah kakak Tiro. Sayang, senjata tak juga dikirim hingga Beureueh meninggal. Hasan Asleh, Jamil Amin, Zainal Abidin, Hasan Tiro, Ilyas Leubee, dan masih banyak lagi berkumpul di kaki Gunung Halimun, Pidie. Di sana, pada 24 Mei 1977, para tokoh eks DI/TII dan tokoh muda Aceh mendirikan GAM. Selama empat hari bersidang, Daud Beureueh ditunjuk sebagai pemimpin tertinggi. Sementara Hasan Tiro yang tak hadir dalam pendirian GAM itu ditunjuk sebagai wali negara. GAM terdiri atas 15 menteri, empat pejabat setingkat menteri dan enam gubernur. Mereka pun bergerilya memuliakan rakyat Aceh, adat, dan agamanya yang diinjak-injak Soeharto.

Miliki Pabrik Senjata dan Berlatih di Libia
Setelah didirikan, GAM mendapat dukungan rakyat. Hubungan dengan dunia internasional terus dibangun. Kekuatan bersenjata pun disusun. Berapa anggota GAM, bagaimana kekuatannya, jaringan internasionalnya, dan dananya?

Masih ingat deadline maklumat pemerintah 12 Mei 2003 lalu. Hingga batas waktu ultimatum, pemerintah tak juga mengeluarkan keputusan sebagai tanda awal operasi militer ke Aceh. Konon, saat itu pemerintah menghitung kekuatan TNI di sana. Ada kekhawatiran, TNI bakal dilibas GAM melalui perang gerilya. Secara tidak langsung, kabar ini menyiratkan ketangguhan kekuatan bersenjata GAM. Sesungguhnya jumlah anggota GAM itu sebagian besar rakyat Aceh.

Filosofinya begini. Jika rakyat terus ditindas, maka seluruh rakyat itu akan bangkit melawan. Dan, hal seperti inilah yang terjadi di bumi Serambi Mekah itu. Perlawanan GAM mendapat simpati luar biasa dari rakyat Aceh. Rakyat yang lama ternista dan teraniaya. Sambil berkelakar, Panglima Tertinggi GAM dan Wakil Wali Negara Aceh Tengku Abdullah Syafei (alm) sempat mengatakan, bayi-bayi warga Aceh telah disediakan senjata AK-47 oleh GAM. Mereka akan dididik dan dilatih sebagai tentara GAM dan segera pergi berperang melawan TNI.

Sejatinya, basis perjuangan GAM dilakukan dalam dua sisi, diplomatik dan bersenjata. Jalur diplomasi langsung dipimpin Hasan Tiro dari Swedia. Opini dunia dikendalikan dari sini. Sementara basis militer dikendalikan dari markasnya di perbatasan Aceh Utara-Pidie. Seluruh kekuatan GAM dioperasikan dari tempat ini.

Termasuk, seluruh komando di sejumlah wilayah di Aceh dan di beberapa negara seperti Malaysia, Pattani (Thailand), Moro (Filipina), Afghanistan, dan Kazakhstan. Tetapi, kerap GAM menipu TNI dengan cara mengubah-ubah tempat markas utamanya. Di seluruh Aceh, GAM membuka tujuh komando, yaitu komando wilayah Pase Pantebahagia, Peurulak, Tamiang, Bateelik, Pidie, Aceh Darussalam, dan Meureum. Masing-masing komando dibawahi panglima wilayah.

Sejak berdiri tahun 1977, GAM dengan cepat melakukan pendidikan militer bagi anggota-anggotanya. Setidaknya tahun 1980-an, ribuan anak muda dilatih di camp militer di Libia. Saat itu, Presiden Libia Mohammar Khadafi mengadakan pelatihan militer bagi gerakan separatis dan teroris di seluruh dunia. Hasan Tiro berhasil memasukkan nama GAM sebagai salah satu peserta pelatihan.

Pemuda kader GAM juga berhasil masuk dalam latihan di camp militer di Kandahar, Afghanistan pimpinan Osama bin Laden. Gelombang pertama masuk tahun 1986, selanjutnya terus dilakukan hingga akhir 1990. Selama DOM, pengiriman tersendat. Tetapi, angkatan 1995-1998 sudah mendapat latihan intensif. Ketika DOM dicabut, prajurit dari Libia ini ditarik ke Aceh. Jumlahnya sekitar 5.000 personel dan dijadikan pasukan elite GAM (semacam Kopassus).

Jalur ke Libia memang agak mudah. Dari Aceh, para pemuda Aceh itu dikirim melalui Malaysia lalu menuju Libia. Jalur lainnya dari Aceh lalu ke Thailand menuju Afghanistan dan melanjutkan ke Libia. Dari jalur ketiga, yakni melalui Aceh menuju Filipina Selatan dan ke Libia. Tiga jalur penting ini hampir selalu lolos dari jangkauan petugas imigrasi, polisi, dan patroli TNI-AL. Di era Syafei hingga sekarang dipegang Muzakkir Manaf, personel GAM terdiri atas pasukan tempur, intelijen, polisi, pasukan inong baleh (pasukan janda korban DOM) dan karades (pasukan khusus) serta Lasykar Tjut Nyak Dien (tentara wanita).

Wakil Panglima GAM Wilayah Pase Akhmad Kandang (alm) pernah mengklaim, jumlah personel GAM 70 ribu. Anggota GAM 490 ribu. Jumlah itu termasuk jumlah korban DOM 6.169 orang. Sumber resmi Mabes TNI cuma menyebut sekitar enam ribu orang. Mantan Menhan Machfud MD menyebut 4.869 personel. Dari jumlah itu, 804 di antaranya dididik di Libia dan 115 dilatih di Filipina — Moro. Persediaan senjatanya terdiri atas pistol, senapan, GLM, mortir, granat, pelontar granat, pelontar roket, RPG, dan bom rakitan.

Jenis senapan di antaranya AK-47, M-16, FN, Colt, dan SS-1. Dari mana persenjataan itu diperoleh? Ada jalur internasional yang menyuplainya. Sejumlah negara disebut antara lain, gerakan separatis Pattani Thailand, Malaysia, gerakan Islam Moro Filipina, eks pejuang Kamboja, gerakan separatis Sikh India, gerakan Elan Tamil, dan Kazhakstan serta Libia dan Afghanistan. GAM juga membuat pabrik senjata. Di antaranya, di Kreung Sabe, Teunom — Aceh Barat — dan di Lhokseumawe dan Nisau-Aceh Utara serta di Aceh Timur.

Jenis senjata yang diproduksi seperti bom, amunisi, senjata laras panjang dan pendek, pabrik senjata ini bisa dibongkar pasang sesuai dengan kondisi medan. Jika akan diserbu TNI, pabrik senjata telah dipindahkan ke daerah lain. Para ahli senjata disekolahkan ke Afghanistan dan Libia.

Senjata-Senjata GAM juga berasal dari Jakarta dan Bandung. Pasar gelap senjata ini dilakukan oleh oknum TNI dan Polri yang haus kekayaan. Bagi GAM, asal ada senjata, uang tidak masalah. Sebab, faktanya GAM ternyata memiliki sumber dana yang sangat besar. Jumlah pembelian ke oknum TNI/Polri ini bisa trilyunan rupiah. Sebuah penggerebekan tahun 2000 oleh Polda Metro Jaya sempat menemukan kuitansi Rp 3 milyar untuk pembelian senjata GAM di pasar gelap dari oknum TNI. Kini, senjata yang dimiliki TNI juga dimiliki GAM.

Yang tak dimiliki GAM adalah senjata berat. Sebab, sifatnya yang lamban. Prinsip GAM, senjata itu harus memiliki mobilitas tinggi, mudah dibawa ke mana-mana. Sebab, strategi perangnya yang hit and run. GAM bahkan mengaku memiliki senjata yang lebih modern daripada TNI. Misalnya, senjata otomatis yang dimiliki para karades. Senjata otomatis, berbentuk kecil mungil itu bisa tahan berhari-hari dalam air. Anggota karades inilah yang biasa menyusup ke kota-kota dan menyergap anggota TNI/Polri yang teledor.

Membeli senjata tentu dengan uang melimpah. Sebab, harganya yang tak murah. Lantas, dari mana mereka mendapatkan dana? GAM memiliki donatur tetap dari pengusaha-pengusaha Aceh yang sukses di luar negeri. Di antaranya, di Thailand, Malaysia, Singapura, Amerika, dan Eropa. Dana juga didapatkan dari sumbangan wajib yang diambil dari perusahaan-perusahaan lokal dan multinasional di Aceh.

Sebagai gambaran, tahun 2000 lalu, GAM meminta sumbangan wajib kepada seorang pengusaha lokal bernama Tengku Abu Bakar sebesar Rp 100 juta. Abu Bakar diberi surat berkop Neugara Atjeh-Sumatera tertanggal 15 Februari 2000 yang ditandatangani oleh Panglima GAM Wilayah Aceh Rajek Tengku Tarzura. Mantan Presiden Abdurrahman Wahid (Gus Dur) pernah menyebut Pupuk Iskandar Muda pernah menyetor Rp 10 milyar ke GAM untuk biaya keamanan.

GAM kerap melakukan gangguan bila tidak mendapatkan sumbangan wajib tersebut. Makanya, setiap bulan, GAM mendapat upeti dari para pengusaha ”sahabat GAM” itu. Sistem komunikasi GAM juga sangat canggih. Sistem komunikasi berlapis dilakukan GAM sebagai benteng pertahanan dan propaganda. Selain handytalky, GAM juga memiliki radio tranking, radar dan telepon satelit. GAM juga memiliki penyadap telepon. Acap kali gerakan TNI/Polri dimentahkan aksi-aksi penyadapan ini. Penggerebekan sering kali gagal total.

Sistem organisasinya yang disusun dengan sistem sel juga membantu GAM survive. Tidak mudah menemukan markas GAM. Meski, ada sebagian anggota GAM yang ditangkap. Antara anggota dan pejabat satu dengan yang lain kadang tidak berhubungan, tidak saling mengenal. Ketua Umum Forum Perjuangan dan Keadilan Rakyat Aceh (FOPKRA) Shalahuddin Al Fatah menuturkan, sejak zaman Belanda, rakyat Aceh memang tidak pernah menang. Tetapi, rakyat Aceh tidak pernah ditaklukkan. Fakta sejarah pula, gerakan rakyat Aceh menentang pusat tidak pernah menang. Tetapi, TNI tidak pernah bisa menaklukkan mereka.

[ officialwaru ]

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